Yoruba: In the west, the Yoruba developed complex, powerful city-states.
The first of these important states was Ile-Ife, which according to Yoruba mythology was the center of the universe.
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Later, other groups such as Shuwa-Arabs, the Tuaregs, and the Fulanis, who are concentrated in the far north, entered northern Nigeria in migratory waves across the Sahara Desert.
The earliest occupants of Nigeria settled in the forest belt and in the Niger Delta region.
Of these, the Igbo are probably the most remarkable because of the size of their territory and the density of population.
Igbo societies were organized in self-contained villages, or federations of village communities, with a society of elders and age-grade associations sharing various governmental functions.
Near the coast, the seasons are less sharply defined.
Temperatures of over 90°F are common in the north, but near the coast, where the humidity is higher, temperatures seldom climb above that mark.However, unlike the Kanuri, no ruler among these states ever became powerful enough to impose his will over the others.Although the Hausa had common languages, culture, and Islamic religion, they had no common king.Internal power struggles and the Fulani expansion to the south caused the collapse of Oyo in the early 19th Century.Benin: Benin developed into a major kingdom during the same period that Oyo was becoming dominant to the west.CLIMATE AND WEATHER Nigeria lies entirely within the tropics yet there are wide climactic variations.