And both the union government and the central government derive their powers from the constitution.: The constitution of India is a rigid constitution and this is one of the basic features of federal constitution.The procedure of amending the Constitution in a federal system is normally rigid.The equality of units in a federation is best guaranteed by their equal representation in the Uppers House of the federal legislature (Parliament).
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In spite of the fact that the Indian Constitution establishes a federal structure, it is indeed very difficult to put the Indian Constitution in the category of a true federation.
The following provision of Indian constitution makes it unitary Article I of the Constitution describes India as a ‘Union of States’, which implies two things: firstly, it is not the result of an agreement among the States and secondly, the States have no freedom to secede or separate from the Union.
The working of Indian federal system clearly reveals that the Governor has acted more as centre’s representative than as the head of the State.
This enables the Union government to exercise control over the State administration.They have unequal representation in the Rajya Sabha.In a true federation such as that of United State of America every State irrespective of their size in terms of area or population it sends two representatives in the upper House i.e. In addition to all this, all important appointments such as the Chief Election Commissioner, the Comptroller and Auditor General are made by the Union Government. There is no provision for separate Constitutions for the states.Since in India important amendments can be amended through this procedure Hence, Indian Constitution has been rightly called a rigid constitution. The Union List consists of 97 subjects of national importance such as Defence, Railways, Post and Telegraph, etc.In Indian constitution the powers of state and centre are clearly defined and there are very clear limits of both the centre and the state for law making powers. The State List consists of 66 subjects of local interest such as Public Health, Police etc.This is one of the federal features of the Indian constitution.