In ancient times, this month was added by observation: the Sanhedrin observed the conditions of the weather, the crops and the livestock, and if these were not sufficiently advanced to be considered "spring," then the Sanhedrin inserted an additional month into the calendar to make sure that Pesach (Passover) would occur in the spring (it is, after all, referred to in the Torah as Chag he-Aviv, the Festival of Spring! A year with 13 months is referred to in Hebrew as Shanah Me'uberet (pronounced shah-NAH meh-oo-BEH-reht), literally: a pregnant year. The additional month is known as Adar I, Adar Rishon (first Adar) or Adar Alef (the Hebrew letter Alef being the numeral "1" in Hebrew).
The extra month is inserted before the regular month of Adar (known in such years as Adar II, Adar Sheini or Adar Beit).
When the Sanhedrin heard testimony from two independent, reliable eyewitnesses that the new moon occurred on a certain date, they would declare the rosh chodesh (first of the month) and send out messengers to tell people when the month began.
The problem with strictly lunar calendars is that there are approximately 12.4 lunar months in every solar year, so a 12-month lunar calendar is about 11 days shorter than a solar year and a 13-month lunar is about 19 longer than a solar year.
But it was bold (or wacky) on the host's part. " Since he had to ask, he's not super psyched to go and plan something special for her. More Ways to Get Glamour Visit Shop for cute stuff starting at just $10!
Which brings me to point #2: Some things shouldn't be toasted with quite the same bravura. He wants to get away with doing the least amount possible. If a guy feels lukewarm about me, I would rather him take me to Mc Donald's.
The Jewish calendar, however, coordinates all three of these astronomical phenomena.
Months are either 29 or 30 days, corresponding to the 29½-day lunar cycle.
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Note that Adar II is the "real" Adar, the one in which Purim is celebrated, the one in which yahrzeits for Adar are observed, the one in which a 13-year-old born in Adar becomes a Bar Mitzvah. In the fourth century, Hillel II established a fixed calendar based on mathematical and astronomical calculations.
This calendar, still in use, standardized the length of months and the addition of months over the course of a 19 year cycle, so that the lunar calendar realigns with the solar years.
The months drift around the seasons on such a calendar: on a 12-month lunar calendar, the month of Nissan, which is supposed to occur in the Spring, would occur 11 days earlier in the season each year, eventually occurring in the Winter, the Fall, the Summer, and then the Spring again.