The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago.After the last ice age only large mammals such as mammoths, bison and woolly rhinoceros remained.
Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy's Geographia there were around 20 tribes in the area.
Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate.
The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union.
England's population of over 53 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.
The term was then used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", and it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was then part of the English kingdom of Northumbria.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years later the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
England's terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England.
However, there are uplands in the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District, and the Pennines) and in the west (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills).
The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest.