Remains from another neolithic settlement around the National Art Gallery are traced to the 3rd–4th millennium BC, which has been the traditional centre of the city ever since and is not changed today.
The earliest tribes who settled were the Thracians. Sofia's area was populated by the Thracian tribe of Tilataei.
Gradually, a compromise arose, officialisation of Sofia for the nationwide institutions, while legitimating the title Sredets for the administrative and church institutions, before the latter was abandoned through the years.
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Springs and autumns in Sofia are usually short with variable and dynamic weather.
The city receives an average precipitation of 581.8 mm (22.91 in) a year, reaching its peak in late spring and early summer when thunderstorms are common.
During the Romans civitas Serdenisium was mentioned the "brightest city of the Serdi" in official inscriptions.
The city was major throughout the past ever since Antiquity, Other names given to Sofia, such as Serdonpolis (Σερδών πόλις, "City of the Serdi" in Greek) and Triaditza (Τριάδιτζα, "Trinity" in Greek), were mentioned by Byzantine Greek sources or coins.
Sofia has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with an average annual temperature of 10.6 °C (51.1 °F). In the coldest days temperatures can drop below −15 °C (5 °F), most notably in January.
The lowest recorded temperature is −28.3 °C (−19 °F) (24 January 1942). In summer, the city generally remains slightly cooler than other parts of Bulgaria, due to its higher altitude.The city became somehow popular to the Ottomans by the name Sofya (صوفيه).In 1879 there was a dispute about what the name of the new Bulgarian capital should be, when the citizens created a committee of famous people, insisting for the Slavic name.The city was called Atralissa by the Arab traveller Idrisi and Strelisa, Stralitsa or Stralitsion by the Crusaders.as opposed to the prevailing Slavic etymology among Bulgarian cities and towns.However, the city is also subjected to heat waves with high temperatures reaching or exceeding 35 °C (95 °F) in the hottest days, particularly in July and August.