The word "Quran" occurs some 70 times in the text of the Quran, although different names and words are also said to be references to the Quran.These codices had differences that motivated the Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version now known as Uthman's codex, which is generally considered the archetype of the Quran known today.
For example, according to Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, if Muhammad had mastered writing and reading he possibly would have been suspected of having studied the books of the ancestors.
Some scholars such as Watt prefer the second meaning of "ummi" – they take it to indicate unfamiliarity with earlier sacred texts.
The final verse of the Qur'an was revealed on the 18th of the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the year 10 A.
H., a date that roughly corresponds to February or March 632.
It summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events.
Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz.
According to Welch, these seizures would have been seen by those around him as convincing evidence for the superhuman origin of Muhammad's inspirations.
However, Muhammad's critics accused him of being a possessed man, a soothsayer or a magician since his experiences were similar to those claimed by such figures well known in ancient Arabia.
It is related that some of the Quraysh who were taken prisoners at the battle of Badr regained their freedom after they had taught some of the Muslims the simple writing of the time. As it was initially spoken, the Quran was recorded on tablets, bones, and the wide, flat ends of date palm fronds.
Most suras were in use amongst early Muslims since they are mentioned in numerous sayings by both Sunni and Shia sources, relating Muhammad's use of the Quran as a call to Islam, the making of prayer and the manner of recitation.
634) decided to collect the book in one volume so that it could be preserved. 655) was the person to collect the Quran since "he used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Apostle".